Speech language pathology
Evidence reviewed as of before 20-05-2021
Author(s): Ogourtsova, T. (PhD OT) & Osman, G. (MSc OT student)
We found one prospective cohort study (Kantarcigil et al., 2017) on a telerehabilitation assessment using the Dysphagia Disorder Survey.
- Equipment used: video camera, tripod, PC, monitor
- Platform used: QuickTime player recording
- Moderate to excellent agreement between f2f and remote, with the same rater. Agreement ranged from 78–100%, with a weighted kappa= 0.64-1 for 5/7 variables; moderate agreement was found 2 variables (oral transport of the bolus and oral pharyngeal swallow), with agreement being 83 and 89%, with a weighted kappa of 0.49 and 0.45, respectively.
- Moderate to excellent agreement between f2f and remote, with different raters. Agreement for variables with substantial to excellent agreement were: reception of foods and liquids, containment of bolus, oral transport,chewing, oral pharyngeal swallow, and post swallow signs (range 71–89%, KW= 0.62-0.86). While moderate agreement was found on orienting to foods and liquids (agreement of 69%, KW= 0.6).
- Excellent agreement between f2f and remote evaluations for same clinician (agreement of 100%; KW= 1).
- Substantial agreement was found between f2f and remote evaluations with different raters (agreement of 85%; KW= 0.76).
Speech and language
We found one method-comparison study (Lin et al., 2013 ) on the telerehabilitation assessments Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Revised (PPVT-R) and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III).
- Equipment used: PC, monitor
- Platform used: website assessment developed by research team, comprising six subtests, presenting questions in auditory and visual formats.
- Moderate to excellent reliability (Cronbach alpha values 0.64 and 0.97 for all sub-tests)
- Low concurrent validity (validity with PPVT-R: concurrent validity ranging from 0.21 to 0.45)
- Low to moderate predictive validity with WISC-III (predictive validity ranging from 0.46 to 0.75)
- Accuracy up to 92% raters
- PPVT-R: The publisher requires the purchaser to be one of the following categories: (a) trained and certified by a recognized institution in a relevant area of assessment with a minimum Bachelor’s degree, or (b) a member of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, American Psychological Association (APA), National Association for School Psychologists (NASP), or (c) graduate students or teachers whose order is made on institutional letterhead with signed approval from an administrator.
- WISC-III: trained psychologist, clinical psychologist, or neuropsychologist.
We found one method-comparison study (Marble-Flint et al., 2019) on a telerehabilitation assessment Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-4th edition (PPVT-4).
- Equipment used: iPad, video-recording camera
- Platform used: Q-interactive
- No significant difference in scores
- High correlation between scores (r=0.91)
Receptive and expressive language
We found one method-comparison study (Sutherland et al., 2019) on the telerehabilitation assessment Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (4th Edition) (CELF-4).
- Equipment used: PC, separate monitor, build-in speakers, webcam
- Platform used: Coviu
- Strong inter-rater reliability between telehealth and f2f (r=0.91-0.99)
- No significant difference in child behavior between telehealth and f2f
- Positive feedback from participants
We found one method-comparison study (Waite et al., 2010) on the telerehabilitation assessments Queensland University Inventory of Literacy (QUIL), South Australian Spelling Test (SAST), Neale Analysis of Reading Ability 3rd edition (Neale-3).
- Equipment used: PC, webcam, headset with microphone and earphones, monitor
- Platform used: Microsoft Windows Media Encoder Codec (for sound stimulus)
- No significant difference between f2f and telehealth.
- Moderate to excellent intra-rater reliability (ICC = 0.89-1.00). Close agreement was at least 80% for all parameters except nonword spelling, Neale-3, and mispronunciation.
- Strong inter-rater reliability (mean interrater agreement for nonword spelling was 95.3% and 97.2% for nonword reading).
- QUIL: Information not found.
- SAST: No formal training required: teachers or administrators must read instructions and calculate raw student scores and compare with the average raw score for that age group.
- Neale-3: No formal training required: Practice with the tests and training by experienced users is helpful
Oromotor abilities and speech
We found one pilot study (Waite et al., 2012) on a telerehabilitation assessment evaluating various oro-motor tasks.
- Equipment used: PC, 2 webcams, headset with headphones and microphone
- Platform used: online telehealth system eREHAB
- High agreement between telehealth and f2f (ICC=0.81 for intelligibility, 100% close agreement and 63% exact agreement. All variables of oro-motor assessment were 100% close agreement, overall exact agreement was 61%)
- Moderate to excellent intra-rater reliability (ICC: 0.44-0.66)
- Poor inter-rater reliability (ICC = -0.17-0.19)